SHIFTING FOCUS FROM SUGAR TO INSULIN FOR PERSONAL HEALTH – PART FOUR – REFERENCES

Majid Ali, M.D.

  1. Shifting Focus From Sugar to Insulin for Personal Health Part One Basic
  2.  Shifting Focus From Sugar to Insulin for Personal Health Part Two Advanced
  3.  Shifting Focus From Sugar to Insulin for Personal Health Part Three – Insulin Detox
  4. Shifting Focus From Sugar to Insulin for Personal Health Part Four – Citations

 

References for Insulin Toxicity and Diabetes 

  1. Ali M. Fayemi AO, Ali O, Dasoju S, et al. Shifting Focus From Glycemic Status to Insulin Homeostasis for Stemming Global Tides of Hyperinsulinism and Type 2 Diabetes. Townsend Letter. 2017; 402:91-96.
  2. Ali M. Importance of Subtyping Type 2 Diabetes Into Subtype A and Subtype 2A and Subtype 2B.  Townsend Letter. 2014; 369:56-58.
  3. Ali M, Dasoju S, Karim N, et al. Study of responses to carbhydrate and non-carbohydratechallenges in insulin-based care of metabolic disorders. Townsend Letter. 2016; 391: 48-51.

 

References for Oxygen, Inflammation, Insulin, and Diverse Diseases

1.    Ali M. Spontaneity of Oxidation in Nature and Aging, (monograph). Teaneck, NJ, 1983.

2.    Ali M. Leaky Cell Membrane Disorder (monograph). Teaneck, NJ, 1987.

3.    Ali M. The agony and death of a cell. In: Syllabus of the Instruction Course of the American Academy of Environmental Medicine. Denver, Colorado, 1985.

4.    Ali M. Molecular medicine. In: The Cortical Monkey and Healing. Institute of Preventive Medicine, Bloomfield, NJ, 1990.

5.    Ali M. Ascorbic acid reverses abnormal erythrocyte morphology in chronic fatigue syndrome, Am J Clin Pathol. I990;94:5I5.

6.    Ali M. Ascorbic acid prevents platelet aggregations by norepinephrinc, collagen, ADP and ristocetin. Am J Clin Pathol 1991;95:281.

7.    Ali M. The basic equation of life. In: The Butterfly and Life Span Nutrition. The Institute of Preventive Medicine Press, Denville, New Jersey. pp 225-236, 1992,

8.    Ali M. Oxidative theory of cell membrane and plasma damage. In Rats, Drugs and Assumptions. 1995. Life Span, Denville, New Jersey. pp 281-302, 1995.

9.    Ali M, Ali O. AA oxidopathy: the core pathogenetic mechanism of ischemic heart disease. J Integrative Medicine 1997;1:1-112.

10.  Ali M. Ali O. Oxidative coagulopathy in fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. Am J Clin Pathol 1999; 112:566-7.

11.  Ali M, Ali O. Fibromyalgia: An oxidative-dysoxygenative disorder (ODD) J Integrative Medicine, 1999;1:1717.

12.  Ali M. Syllabus of capital University of Integrative Medicine, 1997 Washington, DC.

13.  Ali M. Oxidative regression to primordial cellular ecology (ORPEC): Evidence for the hypothesis and its clinical significance. J Integrative Medicine 1988;2:4-55.

14.  Ali M. Primacy of the erythrocyte in vascular ecology. J Integrative Medicine. 2000;3:5-18.

15.  Ali M. The Oxidative-dysoxygenative perspective of apoptosis. J Integ Medicine. 2000;4:5-45.

16.  Ali M, Ali 0, Fayemi A, et al: Improved myocardial perfusion in patients with advanced ischemic heart disease with an integrative management program including EDTA chelation therapy. J Integrative Medicine. 1997;1:113-145.

17.  Ali M: Hypothesis: Chronic fatigue is a state of accelerated oxidative molecular injury. J Advancement in Medicine, 1993;6:83-96.

18.  Efficacy of ecologic-integrative management protocols for reversal of fibromyalgia: an open prospective study of 150 patients. J Integrative Med 1999:3:48-64.

19.  Ali M. Oxidative coagulopathy In environmental illness. Environmental Management and Health. 2000;11:175-191.

20.  All Recent advances in integrative allergy care. Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery 2000:8:260-266.

21.  Ali M. The agony and death of a cell. Syllabus of the instructional course of the American Academy of Environmental Medicine Denver, Co. 1985.

22.  Ali M. Intravenous Nutrient protocols in Nutritional Medicine, (monograph). Institute of Preventive Medicine. Denville, New Jersey 1991.

23.  Ali M. Oxidative theory of cancer. In: Rats, Drugs and Assumptions. 1995. Life Span, Denville, New Jersey. pp 1995:281-302

24.  Ali M. Amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, and polymenorrhea in CFS and fibromyalgia are caused by oxidative menstrual dysfunction. J Integrative Medicine 1998;3:101-124.

25.  Ali M, Ali 0, Fayemi A, et al: Efficacy of an integrative program including intravenous and intramuscular nutrient therapies for arrested growth. J Integrative Medicine 1998:2:56-69.

26.  Ali M. Oxidative theory of cell membrane and plasma damage. In: Rats, Drugs and Assumptions. Life Span, Denville, New Jersey, 1995:281-302.

27.  Ali M. Darwin, oxidosis, dysoxygenosis, and integration. J Integrative Medicine l999;1:11-16

28.  Ali M. Darwin, Oxidosis, Dysoxygenosis, and Integration. J Integrative Medicine. 1999;3:11-16.

29.  Timimi FK, Ting HH, Haley EA, et al, Vitamin C improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1998;31:552-557.

30.  Ting HH, Timimi FK, Boles KS. Vitamin C improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, J Clin Invest. l996;97:22-28.

31.  Åkesson B, Lundquist I. Modulation of the islet nitric oxide system and sulphonylurea-induced insulin secretion, Diabetes Research, 1996;31:91-99.

32.  Åkesson B. Islet constitutive nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide production. Modulatory effects on insulin and glucagon secretion, Public defense of dissertation 1998;98I 23 (9.15) Department of Pharmacology, Sölvegatan 1, Lund, Sweden.

33.  Akesson B, Mosen H, Panagiotidis G, Lundquist I. Interaction of the islet nitric oxide system with L-arginine-induced secretion of insulin and glucagon in mice. Br. J. Pharmacol., 1996:119:758-764.

34.  Arai K. Maguchi S, Fujii S, Ishibashi H, Oikawa K, et al. Glycation and inactivation of human Cu-Zn-superoxide dismutase. Identification of the in vitro glycation sites. J Biol Chem 1987;262:16969-16972.

35.  Azzi A, Ararti D, Boscoboinik S, et al. Specific inhibitory role of a-tocopherol in cell proliferation and its implications in the prevention of diabetes complications. 1998 Abstract. http://www.oxyclubcalifornia.org.

36.  Arai K, Maguchi S, Fujii S, Ishibashi H, Oikawa K, et al. Glycation and inactivation of human Cu-Zn-superoxide dismutase. Identification of the in vitro glycation sites. J Biol Chem 1987;262:16969-16972.

37.   Beckman JA, Goldfine AB, Gordon MB, et al. Ascorbate restores endothelium-dependent vasodilation impaired by acute hyperglycemia in humans. Circulation. 2001;103:1618-1623.

38.  Bellomo 0, Bagnati M, Cau C, et al. Endogenous antioxidants and lipoprotein oxidation in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDIDM). 1998 Abstract. http://www.oxyclubcalifornia.org.

39.   Cameron N, Cotter MA. Antioxidants in the treatment of neuropathic changes in diabetic rats: synergism with essential fatty acids. 1998 Abstract. www.oxyclubcalifornia.org.

40.  Boden 0. Role of fatty acids in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and NIDDM. Diabetes 1997;46:3-lO.

41.  Fujii J, MintT, Okado A, Kaneto H, Taniguchi N. 1996. Oxidative stress caused by glycation of Cu-Zn-superoxide dismutase and its effects on intracellular components Nephrol Dial Transplant (Supple 19) in press.

42.  Fujii J. Taniguchi N. Dysfunction of redox system 1, reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and the glycation reaction: A possible mechanism for apoptotic cell death, http://www.3iwc.riken.go.jp/Congress/sympo/ SBF0206/AD0104/TIT.HTM.

43.  Ali M. Darwin, Oxidosis, dysoxygenosis, and integration. J Integrative Medicine 1999:1:11-16

44.  Ali M: Darwin, fatigue, and fibromyalgia. J Integrative Medicine 1999;3:5-10.

45.  Ali M. Sluggish blood and stagnant lymph. Aging Healthfully. 2000;3:11-13.

46.  All M. The Principles and Practice of Medicine. Volume I: Nature’s preoccupation with complementarity and contrariety. 2001 Capital University Press, Washington, D.C.

47.   American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care for patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 23: Suppl 1:S32-S42.

48.  AdlerJ, Kalb C, et al. An American Epidemic: Diabetes. Newsweek, September 4, 2000.

49.  Burke JP, Williams K, Gaskill SP, et aI. Rapid rise in the incidence of type 2 diabetes from 1987-1996: results from the San Antonio Heart Study. Arch Intern Med 1999:159:1450-1456.

50.  Alberti KGMM, Zimmet PZ. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications, Part 1: Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus provisional report of a WHO consultation. Diabet Med 1998;15:539-553.

51.  Das S, Samal KC, Baliarsinha AK, et al. Lean (underweight) NIDDM – peculiarities and differences in metabolic and hormonal status. J Assoc Physicians India 1995;43:339-342.

52.  Das S. Identity of Lean-NIDDM: Clinical, metabolic and hormonal status. In: Kochupillai N (ed). Advances in Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes Vol. 2. Macmillian: Delhi, India 1994:42-53.

53.  Das S. Low body weight NIDDM: An independent entity. In Das AK (ed) Medicine UpdateAssn Phys India, Mumbai, 1998:595-602.

54.  Das S, Misra ER, Sarral KC, et al. Insulin and glycemic response to common carbohydrate diets in undernourished diabetics. J Nutr Med 1991;2:351-358.

55.  Joshi N, Caputo GM, Weitkamp MR, et aI. Infections in patients with diabetes mellitus. N Engl Med 1999:341:1906-1921.

56.  Gti K, Cowie CC, Hauls MI. Diabetes and decline in heart disease modality in US adults. JAMA 199:281:1291-1297.

57.  Ohlson L0, Larsson B, Bjomtop R, etal. Risk factors for type 2 (non-insulin-dependant) diabetes mellitus: thirteen and one-half years follow-up of participants in a study of Swedish men born in 1913. Diabetologia 1988:31:798-805.

58.  Pan XR, Li OW, Hu YH, et al. Effects of diet and exercise in preventing NIDDM in people with impaired glucose tolerance: the Da Quing IGT and Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care 1997:20:537-544.

59.  Eriksson I, Pranssila-Kallunki A, Ekstrand A. et al. Early metabolic defects in persons at increased risk for non-insulin-dependant diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1989;321:337-343.

60.  Pagan TC, Sowers J. Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:1033-l034.

61.  Moller DE, Flier IS. Insulin resistance—mechanisms, syndromes, and implications. N Engl J Med 1991;325:938-937.

62.  Harris MI. Impaired glucose tolerance in the U.S. population. Diabetes Carel989;12:464-474.

63.  Detre KM. Lombardero MS. Brooks MM, et al. The effects of previous coronary-artery bypass surgery on the prognosis of patients with diabetes who have acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 2000;342:989-997.

64.  Lillioja S, Mott DM, Spraul M, et al. Insulin resistance and insulin secretory dysfunction as precursors of non-insulin-dependant diabetes mellitus: prospective studies of Pima Indians. N Engl J Med l993;329:1988-1992.

65.  Lillioja S, Mott DM, Howard BV, et al. Impaired glucose tolerance as a disorder in insulin action: longitudinal and cross-section studies in Pima Indians. N Engl J Med l988:318:l217-l225.

66.  Warram JH, Martin BC, Krowlewski AS, et al. Slow glucose removal rate and hyperinsulinemia precede the development of type II diabetes in the offspring of diabetic parents. Ann Intern Med 1990;113:909-915.

67.  Reaven GM, Bernstein R, Davis B, et al. Nonketotic diabetes mellitus: insulin deficiency or insulin resistance? Am J Med 976;60:80-58.

68.  Reaven GM, Banting Lecture 1988: role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes 1988;37:1595-l607.

69.  Reaven GM, Laws A. (ed). Insulin Resistance: The Metabolic Syndrome X. Totowa, N.J., Humana Press, 1999.

70.  Haffner SM, Mykkanen L, Festa A, et al. Insulin-resistant prediabetic subjects have more atherogenic risk factors than insulin-sensitive prediabetic subjects: implications for preventing coronary artery disease during the prediabetic state. Circulation 2000:101:975-980.

71.  Haffner SM. Stern MP, Dunn J, et al. Diminished insulin sensitivity and increased insulin response in nonobese, nondiabetic Mexican Americans. Metabolism 1990;39:842-847.

72.  Fagan TC, Sowers J. Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med1999;159:1033-1034.

73.  Flier JS. The missing link with obesity? Nature. 2001;409:292-3.

74.  Folsom AR, Rasmussen ML, Chambless LE, et al. Prospective associations of fasting insulin, body fat distribution, and diabetes risk of ischemic stroke, Diabetes Care 1999; 22(7)1077-1083.

75.  Kroenke K, Wood DO, Mangeldorf AD, et al. Chronic fatigue in primary care: prevalence, patient characteristics, and outcome. JAMA 198;260:929-934.

76.  Surgery on the skull for chronic fatigue? Doctors are trying it. The Wall Street Journal. November 11, 1999, pp A1 and A8.

77.  Bland JS. Functional medicine approach to managing Syndrome X and type 2 diabetes. International J Integrative Medicine 1999 Vol 1 No. 6. pp. 39-46.

78.  McCarty MF. Complementary measures for promoting insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. Med Hypothesis 1998;51:451-464.

79.  Eto K, Tsubamoto Y, Terauchi Y, et al. Role of NADH shuttle system in glucose-induced activation of mitochondrial metabolism and insulin secretion. Science. 1999;283:98l-5.

80.  Wallace DC. Diseases of the mitochondrial DNA. Annu Rev Biochem 1992;61:1175-1212.

81.  Trumpower, BL. The protonmotive Q cycle. J Biol Chem 1990;265:11409-11412.

82.  Kwong LK, Sohal RS. Substrate and site specificity of hydrogen peroxide generation in mouse mitochondria. Arch Biochem Biophys 1998;350:118-126.

83.  Casteilla L, et al. Stable expression of function mitochondrial uncoupling protein in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990;87:5124-5128.

84.  Manna SK, et al. Overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase suppress tumor necrosis factor-induced apopotosis and activation of nuclear transcription factor-KB and activated protein-1. J Bio Chem 1998;273:13245-13254.

85.   Nishikawa T, Edelstein D, Du XL, et al. Normalizing mitochondrial superoxide production blocks three pathways of hyperglycaemic damage. Nature 2000;404:787-90.

86.  Brownee M. Advanced protein glycosylation in diabetes and aging. Annu Rev Med 1995;46:223-234.

87.  Baynes JW. Evidence for increased carbonyl stress, but not increased oxidative stress in diabetes. 1998 Abstract. www.oxyclubcalifornia.org.

88.  Ali M. Hypoglycemia. In: The Butterfly and Life Span Nutrition. The Institute of Preventive Medicine Press, Denville, NJ 1992;375-385.

89.  Ali M. Lions, hypoglycemia, and insulin roller coasters. In: What Do Lions Know About Stress. Life Span Press. Denville, New Jersey. 1996:173-222,

90.  Ali M. On limbic eating. In: The Butterfly and Life Span Nutrition. 1992. The Institute of Preventive Medicine Press, Denville, New Jersey. 1992:313-390.

91.  Pieper GM, Langenstroter P, Siebenich W. Diabetic induced endothelial dysfunction in rat aorta: role of hydroxyl radicals. Cardiovasc Res 1997;1341:217-222.

92.  Chandra A, Srivastava S, Petrash J, et al. Active site modification of aldose reductase by nitric oxide donors. Biochem Biophys Acta 1997;1341:217-222.

93.  Hotamisligil GS, Spiegelman BM. Tumor necrosis factor alpha: a key component of the obesity-diabetes link. Diabetes 1994;43:1271-1278

94.   Hotamisligil GS. The Role of TNFa and TNF receptors in obesity and insulin resistance. J Int Med 1999;245:621-625.

95.   Friedman SM, Halaas JL. Leptin and the regulation of body weight in mammals. Nature 1998;395:763-770.

96.  Chawla A, Schwarz EJ, Dimaculangan DD, et al. 1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARy): adipose predominant expression and induction early in adipocyte differentiation. Endocrinology 1994:135:798-800.

97.  Barroso I, et al. Dominant negative mutations in human PPARy associated with severe insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Nature 1999;402:880-993.

98.  Cowley MA, Smart J, Rubinstein M, et al. Leptin activates anorexogenic POMC neurons through a neural network in the arcuate nucleus. Nature 2001;411:480-4.

99.  Zierath JR. Housenecht KL, Gnudi L, et al. High-fat feeding impairs insulin-stimulated GLUT45 recruitment via an early insulin-signaling effect. Diabetes 1997;46:215-233.

100.    Rssen P, Du X, FSrber K. Glucose activates NF-kB and induces apoptosis in human endothelial cells by a N0-synthase dependant pathway. 1998 Abstract.www.oxyclubcalifornia.org.

101.    Ali M. Anxiety, lactic acid, and limbic lions. In: What Do Lions Know About Stress. Life Span Press. Denville, NJ 1996;233-246.

102.   Cline OW, Petersen KF, Krssak M, et al. Impaired glucose transport as a cause of decreased insulin-stimulated muscle glycogen synthesis in type 2 diabetes. New Engl J Med 1999;341:240-246.

103.    McClain DA, Crook ED. Hexosamines and insulin resistance. Diabetes 1996; 45:1003-1010.

104.    Baron AD, Zhu JS, Weldon H, et al. Glucosamine induces insulin resistance in vivo by affecting GLUT 4 translocation in skeletal muscle: implications for glucose toxicity. J Clin Invest 1995;96:2792-2801.

105.    Robinson KA, Sens DA, Buse MG. Pre-exposure to glucosamine induces insulin resistance of glucose transport and glycogen synthesis in isolate rat skeletal muscles: study of mechanisms in muscle and in rat-1 fibroblasts overexpressing the human insulin receptor. Diabetes 1993;42:1333-1346.

106.    Hebert LF, Daniels MC, Zhou JX, et al. Overexpression of glutamine:fructose 6-phosphate aminotransferase in transgenic mice leads to insulin resistance. J Clin Invest 1996;98:930-936.

107.   Yki-Jarvinen H, Daniels MC, Virkamaki A, et al. Increased glutamine:fructose 6-phosphate aminotransferase activity in skeletal muscle of patients with NIDDM. Diabetes 1996;45:302-307.

108.    Samols E. The Endocrine Pancreas. New York, Raven Press, 1991.

109.   Depre C, Vanoverschelde J-L, Taegtmeyer H. Glucose for the heart. Circulation 1999;99:578-588.

110.    Jagasia D, Whiting J, Concato J, et al. Effect of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus on myocardial insulin responsiveness in patients with ischemic heart disease. Circulation 2001;103:1734-1739.

111.    Seino S, Seino M, Nishi B, et al. Structure of human insulin receptor gene and characterization of its promoter. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989;86:114-118.

112.    Rosen OM. Structure and function of insulin receptors. Diabetes 1989;38:15O8-1511.

113.    DeMeyts P, Gu JL, Shyniko RM, et al. Identification of the ligand-binding region of the human insulin receptor encoded by the second exon of the gene, Mol Endocrinol 1990;4:409-416.

114.    Zierath JR, Handberg A, Tally M, et al. C-peptide stimulates glucose transport in isolated human skeletal muscle independent of insulin receptor and tyrosine kinase activation, Diabetologia 1996;39:306-313.

115.    Zierath JR, Oaluska D, Nolte LA, et al. Effects of glycaemia on glucose transport in isolated skeletal muscle from patients with NIDDM: in vitro reversal of muscular insulin resistance. Diabetologia 1994;37:27O-277.

116.    Kasuga M, Fujita-Yamaguchi V, Blithe DL, et al. Tyrosine-specific protein kinase activity is associated with the purified insulin receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1983;80:2137-2141.

117.     McClain DA. Insulin action in cells expressing truncated or kinase-defective insulin receptors: dissection of multiple hormone-signaling pathways. Diabetes Care 1990; 13:302-316.

118.    Bar RS, Harrison LC, Muggeo M, et al. Regulation of insulin receptors in normal and abnormal physiology in humans. Adv Intern Med 1979;24:23-52.

118.    Felig P, Bergman IA. Integrated physiology of carbohydrate metabolism. In: Ritkin H, Porte D, eds. Ellenberg and Rifkins diabetes mellitus. 4th ed. NY: Elsevier 1990.

119.    Kahn BB, Flier JS. Regulation of glucose-transporter gene expression in vitro and in vivo. Diabetes Care 199O;13:548-564.

120.    Bell GI, Kayano T, Buse JB, et al. Molecular biology of mammalian glucose transporters. Diabetes Care 199O;13:198-208.

121.    Kahn CR, Flier JS, Bar RS, et al. The syndromes of insulin resistance and acanthosis nigricans: insulin-receptor disorders in man. New Engl J Med 1976;294:739-745.

122.     DeFronzo RA. The triumvirate: B cell, muscle, liver; a collusion responsible for NIDDM, Diabetes 1988;37:667-87.

123.    Yki-Jarvinen U, Young AA, Lamkin C, et al. Kinetics of glucose disposal in whole body and across the forearm in man. S Clin Invest 1987;79:1713-9.

124.    Cline GW, Petersen KF, Krssak M, et al. Impaired glucose transport as a cause of decreased insulin-stimulated muscle glycogen synthesis in type 2 diabetes. New Engl J Med 1999;341:240-246.

125.    Beck-Nielsen H, Vaag A, Damsbo P, et al. Insulin resistance in skeletal muscles in patients with NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1992;15:418-429.

126.    Butler PC, Kryshak EJ, Marsh M, et al. Effects of insulin on oxidation of intracellularly derived glucose in patients with NIDDM: evidence for primary defect in glucose transport and/or phosphorylation but not oxidation. Diabetes 1990;39:1373-1380.

127.    Yki-Jarvinen H, Sahlin K, Ren JM, et al. Localization of rate-limiting defect for glucose disposal in skeletal muscle of insulin-resistant type I diabetic patients. Diabetes 1990;39:157-167.

128.      Rothman DL, Magnusson I, Cline G, et al. Decreased muscle glucose transport/phosphorylation is an early defect in the pathogenesis of non-insulin dependant diabetes mellitus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995;92:983-987.

129.     Wright EM, Turk E, Zabel B, et al. Molecular genetics of intestinal glucose transport. J Clin Invest J 1991;88:1435-40.

130.     Rossetti L, Stenbit AE, Chen W, et al. Peripheral but not hepatic insulin resistance in mice with one disrupted allele of the glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) gene. J Clin Invest 1997;1O0:1831-1839.

131.    Chiang S-H, Baumann CA, Kanzaki M, et al. Insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation requires the CAP-dependent activation of TC1O. Nature 2001;410:944-948.

132.     Stenbit AE, Tsao TS, Li J, et al. GLUT-4 heterozygous knockout mice develop muscle insulin resistance and diabetes. Nat Med. 1997;3:1096-1101.

133.      Bjornhom M, Kawano Y, Lehtihet, et al. Insulin receptor substrate-I phosphorylation and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in skeletal muscle from NIDDM subjects in vivo insulin stimulation. Diabetes 1997;46:524- 527.

134.     Goodyear LJ, Giorgino F, Sherman LA, et al. Insulin receptor phosphorylation, insulin receptor substrate-I phosphorylation, and phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase activity are decreased in intact skeletal muscle strips from obese subjects. J Clin Invest 1995;95:2195-2204.

135.    Yki-Jarvinen H. Glucose toxicity. Endocr Rev 1992;13:415-431.

136.    Ballinger WF, Lacy PE. Transplantation of intact pancreatic islets in rats. Surgery 1972;72:175-186.

137.    Warnock GL, Kneteman NM, Ryan EA, et al. Long-term follow-up after transplantation of insulin producing pancreatic islets into patients with type I (insulin-dependant) diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 1992;35:89-95.

138.    Hering BJ, Brendel MD, Schultz AG, et al. International islet transplant registry newsletter No. 7. December 1996 (Giessen, Germany: Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen).

139.     Shapiro AMJ, Lakey JRT, Ryan EA, et al. Islet transportation in seven patients with type I diabetes mellitus using a glucocorticoid-free immunosuppressive regimen. N Engl J Med 2OO0;343:23O-238.

140.     Lumelsky N, McKay R, et al. http://www.Scienceexpress.org April 27, 2001.

141.     Robertson RP. Editorial: Successful islet transplantation for patients with diabetes – fact or fantasy? N Engl J Med 2000;343:289-290.

142.     Randle PJ, Garland PB, Hales CN, et al. The glucose fatty acid cycle: its role in insulin sensitivity and the metabolic disturbances of diabetes mellitus. Lancet 1963;1:785-789.

143.    Abel ED, Sherperd PR, Kahn BB. Glucose transporters and pathophysiologic states. In: Le Roith D, Taylor SI, Olefsky JM, eds. Diabetes mellitus: A Fundamental and Clinical Text. Philadelphia, Lippincott-Raven, 1996:530-43.

144.      Dressner A, Laurent D, Marcucci M, et al. Effects of free fatty acids on glucose transport and IRS-I-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity. J Clin Invest 1999;103:253-259.

145.      Ashcroft FM, Aschcroft SJH, eds. Insulin. Molecular Biology to Pathology 1992. Oxford, Oxford University Press:1-418

146.      Packer L. Oxidative stress, antioxidants, and diabetes. 1998 Abstract,
www.oxyclubcalifornia.org.

147.    Borg WP, During MJ. Sherwin RS, et al. Venromedical hypothalamic lesions in rats suppress counter regulation responses to hypoglycemia, J Clin Invest 1994;93:1677-1682.

148.    Borg MA, Sherwin RS, Borg WP, et al. Local venromedical hypothalamus glucose perfusion blocks counter regulation during systemic hypoglycemia in awake rats. J Clin Invest 1997;99:361-165

149.    Tse TF, Clutter WE, Shah SD, et al. Mechanisms of postprandial glucose counterregulation in man: physiological roles of glucagon and epinephrine vis-a-vis insulin in prevention of hypoglycemia late after glucose ingestion. J Clin Invest 1983;72:278-286.

150.    Féry F, Plat L, Van De Borne P. et al. Impaired counterregulation of glucose in a patient with hypothalamic sarcoidosis. N Engl J Med 1999;340:852-856.

151.    von Boehmer H, Sarukhan A. DAG, a single autoantigen for diabetes. Science 1999;284;1135-6.

152.    Yoon W-J, et al. Science 1999;284:1183-87.

153.     Goodyear LJ, Kahn BB. Exercise, glucose transport and insulin sensitivity. Annu Rev Med 1998;49:235-261.

154.      American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care for patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2000;23:Suppl 1:S32-S42.

155.    Lund S, Holman GD, Schmitz O, et al. Contraction stimulates translocation of glucose transporter GLUT4 in skeletal muscle through a mechanism distinct from that of insulin. Proc Natl Mad Sci USA. 1995;92: 5817-5821.

156.     Hayashi T, Hirshman MR, Kurth EJ, et al. Evidence for 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase mediation effect of muscle contraction on glucose transport. Diabetes 1998;47:1369-1373.

157.      Holloszy J. Regulation of glucose metabolism and exercise.
http://www.research.medicine.wntl.edu/ocfa/Research.nsf/Abstracts. (Link does not work.)

158.      Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC. Lipid peroxidation, oxygen radicals, cell damage and antioxidant therapy. Lancet 1984;i:1396-8.

159.      Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC. Oxygen toxicity, oxygen radicals, transition metals and disease. Biochem J 1984;21 9:1-14.

160.      Halliwell B. Protection against tissue damage in vivo by desferrioxamine: What is its mechanism of action? Free Radic Biol Med. 1989;7:645-51.

161.    Vane JR, Nygard EE, Botting RM. Regulatory function in the vascular endothelium. N Eng J Med 1990;323:27-36.

162.    Peiper GM, Langenstoer P. Siebeneich W. Diabetic-induced endothelial dysfunction in rat aorta: role of hydroxyl radicals. Cardiovasc Research 1997;34:145-156.

163.    Williams SB, Goldfine AB, Timimi FK, et al. Acute hyperglycemia attentuates endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans in vivo. Circulation 1998;97:1695-1701.

164.     Muller G, Wierd S. The sulfonylurea drug, glimepiride, stimulates glucose transport, glucose transporter translocation, and dephosphorylation in insulin-resistant rat adipocytes in vitro. Diabetes 1993;42:1852-1867.

165.     Muller DC, Elahi D, Tobin JD, et al. The effect of age on insulin resistance and secretion: A review. Seminars in Nephrology 1996;16:289-298.

166.     Laakso M, Edelman S. Brechtel G, et al. Decreased effect of insulin to stimulate skeletal muscle blood flow in obese man. J Clin Invest 85:1844-1852.

167.    Baron A, Steinburg H, Brechtel G, et al. Skeletal muscle blood flow independently modulates insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Am J Physiol 266:E248-253.

168.    Baron A: The coupling of glucose metabolism and perfusion in human skeletal muscle. The potential role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide, Diabetes l996;45:105-109.

169.    Baron A, Laasko M, Brechtel G, et al. Reduced post-prandial skeletal muscle blood flow contributes to glucose intolerance in human obesity. J CIin Endocrinol Metab 1990;70:1525-1533.

170.     Vollenweider P, Randin D, Tappy L, et al. Impaired insulin-induced sympathetic neural activation and vasodilation in skeletal muscle in obese humans. J Clin Invest 1994;93:2365-2371.

171.    Arend WP, Dayer JM. Inhibition of the production and effects of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor a in rheumatoid arthritis, Arthritis Rheum 1995;38:151-160.

172.     Brennan FM, Feldmann M. Cytokines in autoimmunity. Curr Opin Immunol 1992;4:754-759.

173.    Moller DE, Flier JS. Insulin resistance – mechanisms, syndromes, and implications. N Engl J Med 1991;325:938-937.

174.     Hotamisligil GS, Spiegelman BM. Tumor necrosis factor alpha: a key component of the obesity-diabetes link. Diabetes 1994;43:1271-1278.

175.    Ofei F, Hurel S, Newkirk J. Effects of an engineered human anti-TNF-alpha antibody (CDP571) on insulin sensitivity and glycemic control in patients with NIDDM. Diabetes 1996;45:881-885.

176.    Young ME, Radda GK, Leighton B. Nitric oxide stimulates glucose transport and metabolism in rat skeletal muscle in vitro. Biochem J 1997;322:223-228.

177.    Nawroth P, Bank I, Handley D, et aI. Tumor necrosis factor/cachectin interacts with endothelial cell receptors to induce release of interleukin 1. J Exp Med 1986;163:1363-1375.

178.     Present DH, Rutgeerts P, Targan S, et al. Infliximab for the treatment of fistulas in patients with crohn’s disease, New Eng. J Med 1999;340:1398-1405.

179.     Lipsky PE, Van Der Heijde DMFM, St. Clair EW, et al. Infliximab and methotrexate in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. N Eng J Med 2000;343:1594.

180.    Elliot MJ, Maini RN, Feldmann M, et al. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with chimeric monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor a, Arthritis Rheum 1993;36:1681-1690.

181.     Moreland LW, Baumgartner SW, Schiff MH, et al. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with a recombinant human tumor necrosis factor receptor (p75)-Fe fusion protein.

182.    Sen R, Baltimore D. Multiple nuclear factors interact with the immunoglobulin enhancer sequence. Cell 1986;46:705-716.

183.      Barnes PJ, Karin M. Nuclear factor-kB a pivotal transcription factor in chronic inflammatory disease

183a.    Rachmilewitz D, Stamler JS, Bachwich D, et al. Enhanced colonic nitric oxide generation and nitric oxide synthase activity in ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease. Gut 1995;36:718-723.

183b.  Evans CH, et al. Nitric oxide and its role in orthopaedic disease. Clin Orthop 1995;312:275-294

184.    Siebenlist U, Franzoso G, Brown K. Structure, regulation and function of NP-KB. Annu Rev Cell Biol 1994;10:405-55.

185.    Baeuerle PA, Baltimore D. NF-KB: ten years after: Cell 1996;87:13-20.

186.    Xie QW, Kashiwabara Y, Nathan C. Role of transcription factor NF-KB/Rel in induction of nitric oxide synthase. J Biol Chem 1994;269:4705-4708.

187.    Rssen P. Du X, FSrber K. Glucose activates NP-kB and induces apoptosis in human endothelial cells by a NO-synthase dependant pathway. 1998 Abstract.www.oxyclubcalifornia.org.

188.   Lund S, Flyvberg A, Holman GD, et al, Comparative effects of IGF-1 and insulin on the glucose transporter system in rat muscle. Am J Physiol 1994;267:E46l -E466.

189.   Zierath JR, Bang P, Galuska D, et al. Insulin-like growth factor II stimulates glucose transport in human skeletal muscle. FEBS Let 1992;307:379-382.

190.   Sinha MK, Buchanan C, Raineri-Maldonado C, et al. IGF-II receptors and IGF-stimulated glucose transport in human fat cells. Am J Physiol 1990;258:E534-E542.

191.   Le Roith D. Insulin-like growth factors. N Engl J Med 1997;336:633-640.

192.   Baynes J, Dominiczak MH. Medical Biochemistry. Mosby. New York. 1999:466

193.   Tontonoz P. Hu E, Spiegelman BM. Stimulation of adipogenesis in fibroblasts by PPARy2, a lipid-activated transcription factor. Cell 1994;79:1147-1156.

194.    Barroso I, et al. Dominant negative mutations in human PPARy associated with severe insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Nature 1999;402:880-993.

195.   Miles PD, Barak Y, He W, et al. Improved insulin-sensitivity in mice heterozygous for PPARy deficiency. J Clin Invest 2000;105:287-292.

196.   Mukherjee R, et at. Sensitization of diabetic and obese mice to insulin by retinoid X receptor agonists. Nature 1997:386;407-410.

197.    Flier JS. The missing link with obesity? Nature. 2001;409:292-3.

198.    Wilson TM, et al. The structure-activity relationship

199.    Schwartz MW. Kahn SE. Insulin resistance and obesity. Nature 1999;402:860-861.

200.     Stepphan CM, Bailey ST, Bhat S, et al. The hormone resistin links obesity to diabetes. Nature 2001:409;307-312.

201.    Berti L, Kellerer M, Capp E, et al. Leptin stimulates glucose transport and glycogen synthesis in C2C12 myotubes: evidence for a P3-kinase mediated effect. Diabetologia 1997;40:606-609.

202.    Friedman JM, Halaas JL. Leptin and the regulation of body weight in mammals. Nature 1998;395:763-770.

203.    Ahima RS, Flier JS. Annu Rev Physiol 2000;62:413-437.

204.    Considine RV, et al. New Eng J Med 1995;334:292-295.

205.    Bray GA, York DA. Clinical review 90: Ieptin and clinical medicine: a new piece in the puzzle of obesity. J CIin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:2771-2776. [Erratum, J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:3878.]

206.    Sivitz WI, Walsh SA, Morgan DA, et al. Effects of leptin on insulin sensitivity in mice by leptin treatment. Nature 1997;389:374-377.

207.    Kamohara S, Burcelin R, Halaas JL, et al. Acute stimulation of glucose metabolism in mice leptin treatment. Nature 1997;389:374-377.

208.    Muoio DM, Dohm GL, Fiedorek FT Jr, et al. Leptin directly alters lipid portioning in skeletal muscle. Diabetes 1997;46:1360-1363.

209.     Muller G, Wierd S. The sulfonylurea drug, glimepiride, stimulates glucose transport, glucose transporter translocation, and dephosphorylation in insulin-resistant rat adipocytes in vitro. Diabetes 1993:42:1852- 1867.

210.     Wilson JD, Foster DW, Kronenberg HM, Larsen PR (eds.) Williams Textbook of Endocrinology 9th ed. Philedelpbia, WB Saunders, 1998.

211.     Baynes J, Dominiczak ME (eds.) Medical Biochemistry. New York, Mosby. pp 456-7.

212.    Abel ED, Shepherd PR, Kahn BB. Glucose transporters and pathophysiologic states. Le Roith D, Taylor SAI, Olefsky JM, eds. In: Diabetes mellitus a fundamental and clinical text. Lippineott-Raven, Philadelphia 1996:530-543.

213.    Kahn BB. Facilitative glucose transporters: regulatory mechanisms and dysregulation in diabetes: J Clin Invest 1993;89:1367-1374.

214.    Ali M. The Canary and Fibromyalgia. 2001. Aging Healthfully Press, Denville, New Jersey.

215.    Ali M. The pyramid of trios of the human body ecosystems and the road map for recovery. Aging Healthfully 2000;2:14-15.

216.    Ali M. Chronic fatigue syndrome. Aging Healthfully 1999;1:10-13.

217.    Ali M. The Canary and Fibromyalgia. 2001. Aging Healthfully Press, Denville, New Jersey-pp 9-32.

218.     Franks S. Polycystic ovary syndrome. N Engl J Med 1995;333:853-861. [Erratum N EngI J Med 1995;333:1435.]

219.     Nestler JE, Jakubowicz DJ. Lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome respond to insulin reduction with decreases in ovarian P450c17a activity and serum androgens J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:4075-4079.

220.      Nestler JE, Jakubowicz DJ. Lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome respond to insulin reduction with decreases in ovarian P450c17a activity and serum androgens J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:4075-4079.

221.      Nestler JE, Jakubowicz DJ, Evans WS, et al. Effects of metformin on spontaneous and clomiphene-induced ovulation in the polycystic ovary syndrome. N Engl J Med 1998:338:1876-1880.

222.    Craig JW, Larner J, Asplin CM. Urinary chiro-inositol deficiency and insulin resistance. Draznin B, LeRith D, eds. In: Molecular biology of diabetes. Part 2. Totawa, NJ. Humana Press, 1994:343-362.

223.    Larner J. Multiple pathways in insulin signaling – fitting the covalent and allosteric puzzle pieces together. Endocr J 1994;2:167-171.

224.    Suzuki S, Kawaski H, Satih Y, et al. Urinary chiro-inositol excretion is an index marker of insulin sensitivity in Japanese type II diabetes. Diabetes. Care 1994;17:1465-1468.

225.    Ortmeyer HK, Bodkin NL, Lilley K, et al. Chiroinositol deficiency and insulin resistance. I. Urinary excretion rate of chiroinositiol is directly associated with insulin resistance in spontaneously diabetic rhesus monkeys. Endocrinology 1993;132:640-645.

226.    Kennington AS, Hill CR, Craig J, et al. Low urinary chiro-inositol excretion in non-insulin-dependant diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1990;323:373-378.

227.    Ortmeyer HK, Huang LC, Zhang L, et al. Chiro-inositol deficiency and insulin resistance. II. Acute effects of D-chiro-inositol administration in streptozocin-diabetic rats, normal rats given a glucose load, and spontaneously insulin-resistant rhesus monkeys. Endocrinology 1993;132:646-651.

228.   Asplin I, Galasko G, Larner S. Chrio-inositol deficiency and insulin resistance: a comparison of chiro-inositol- and the myo-insositol-containing insulin mediators isolated from urine, hemodialysate, and muscle of control and type II diabetic subjects. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993;90:5924-5928.

229.    Nestler JE, Jakubowicz DJ, Evans WS, et al. Effects of metformin on spontaneous and clomiphene-induced ovulation in the polycystic ovary syndrome. N Engl J Med 1998;338:1876-1880.

230.    Nestler J, Jakubowicz DJ, Reamer P, et aI. Ovulatory and metabolic effects of D-chiro-Inositol in the polycystic ovary syndrome. N Engl J Med 1999;340:1314-1320.

231.    Pak Y, Paule CR, Bao YD, et al. Insulin stimulates the biosynthesis of chiro-inositol-containing phospholipids in a rat fibroblast line expressing the human insulin receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993;90:7759-7763.

232.    Pak Y, Huang LC, Lilley KJ, et al. In vivo conversions of [3H] myoinositiol to [3H] chiroinositol in rat tissues. J Biol Chem 1992;267:16904-16910.

233.    Moller DE, Flier JS. Insulin resistance — mechanisms, syndromes, and implications. N Engl J Med 1991;325:938-937.

234.    Kahn CR, Flier JS, Bar RS, et al. The syndromes of insulin resistance and acanthosis nigricans: insulin-receptor disorders in man. New Engl J Med 1976;294:739-745.

235.     Barberi RL, Smith S, Ryan KJ. The role of hyperinsulinemia in the pathogenesis of ovarian hyperandrogenism. Fertil Steril 1988;50:197-212.

236.     Insulin genetic disorders a Poretsky L. On the paradox of insulin-induced hyperandrogenism in insulin regulated states. Endocr Rev 1991;12:3-13.

237.     Rabson SM, Mendenhall EN. Familial hypertrophy of pineal body, hyperplasia of adrenal cortex and diabetes mellitus: report of 3 cases. Am J Clin Pathol 1956;26:283-290.

238.      Kadowaki I, Kadowaki H, Rechler MM, et al. Five mutant alleles of the insulin receptor gene in patients with genetic forms of insulin resistance. J Clin Invest 1990;86:254-264.

239.      Kadowaki T, Bevins CL, Cama A, et al. Two mutant allels of the insulin receptor gene in patients with, extreme insulin resistence. Science 1988:240-787-790.

240.    Accili D, Frapier C, Mosthaf L, et al. A mutation in the insulin receptor gene that impairs transport of the receptor to the plasma membrane and causes insulin-resistant diabetes. EMBO J 1989;8:2509-2517.

241.    Taira M, Taira M, Hasimoto N, et al, Human diabetes associated with a deletion of the tyrosine kinase domain of the insulin receptor. Science 1989;245:63-66.

242.    Shimada F, Taira M, Suzuki Y, et al. Insulin-resistant diabetes associated with partial deletion of insulin-receptor gene. Lancet 1990;335:1179-1181.

243.    D’Ercole AJ, Underwood LE, Geroelke J, et al. Leprechaunism: studies of the relationship among hyperinsulin, insulin resistance, and growth retardation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1979;48:495-502.

244.   Reddy SS, Kahn CR. Epidermal growth factor receptor defects in Leprechaunism: a multiple growth factor-resistant syndrome. J Clin Invest 1989;84:1569-1576.

245.   Kadowski T, Kadowski H, Rechler MM, et al. Five mutant alleles of the insulin receptor gene in patients with genetic forms of insulin resistance. J Clin Invest 1990;86:254-264.

246.   Senior B, Gellis SS. The syndromes of total lipodystrophy and of partial lipodystrophy. Pediatrics 1964;33:593-612.

247.   Beylot M, Sautot G, Laville M, et al, Metabolic studies on lipotrophic diabetes: mechanisms for hyperglycemia and evidence for resistance to insulin lipid metabolism. Diabetes Metab 1988;14:20-24.

248.   Flier JS, Kahn CR, Roth J. Antibodies that impair insulin receptor binding in an unusual diabetic syndrome with severe insulin resistance, Science 1975;190:63-65.

249.   Flier JS, Kahn CR, Roth J. Receptors, antireceptor antibodies and mechanisms of insulin resistance. N Engl J Med 1979;300:413-419.

250.    Taylor SI, Barbetti F, Accioli D, et al. Syndromes of autoimmunity and hypoglycemia: antibodies directed against insulin and its receptor. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1989;18:123-143.

251.    Flier JS, Bar RS, Muggeo M, et al. The evolving clinical course of patients with insulin receptor autoantibodies: a spontaneous remission or receptor proliferation with hypoglycemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1978;47:985-995.

252.    Tsokos GC, Gorden P, Antonovych T, et al., Lupus nephritis and other autoimmune features in patients wilh diabetes mellitus due to autoantibody to insulin receptors. Ann Intern Med 1985:102:176-181.

253.   Boden G, Fujita-Yamaguchi Y, Shimoyama R, et al. Nonbinding inhibitory antiinsulin receptor antibodies: a new type of autoantibodies in human diabetes. J Clin Invest 1988;81:1971-1978.

254.    Haring H, Obermaier-Kusser B. Insulin receptor kinase defects in insulin-resistant tissues and their role in the pathogenesis of NIDDM. Diabetes Metab Rev 1989;5:431-541.

255.    Freidenberg GR, Reichart D, Olefsky JM, et al. Reversibility of defective adipocyte insulin receptor kinase activity in non-insulin­ dependant diabetes mellitus: effect of weight loss. J Clin Invest 1988:82:1398-1406.

256.    Frier BM, Fisher BM. Hypoglycemia in Clinical Diabetes. 1999. Wiley, New York.

257.    Ali. glucose and IPM patients

258.    Ali M, Ali O: AA oxidopathy: the core pathogenic mechanism of ischemic heart disease. J Integrative Medicine 1997:1:31-38.

259.    Ali M, Ali O: AA oxidopathy: the core pathogenic mechanism of ischemic heart disease. J Integrative Medicine 1997;1:39-40.

260.     Greene DA, Cao X, Van Huysen C, et al, Effects of dl-a-lipoic acid (LA) on diabetic nerve function, bioenergetics, and antioxidative defense. 1998 Abstract. www.oxyclubcalifornia.org.

261.     Brand-Miller J, Foster-Powell K. Diets with slow glycemic index: from theory to practice. Nutr Today 1999;34(2):64-72.

262.    Kim YI: Diet, lifestyle, and colorectal cancer: is hyperinsulinemia the missing link? Nutr Rev 1999;56(9):275-279.

263.    Gerbi A. Maixent JM, Ansali JL. et al. Fish oil supplemenlation prevents diabetes-induced nerve condition velocity and neuroanatomical changes in rats. J Nutr 1999;129:207-213.

264.    Yusuf, S. Calcium antagonists in coronary artery disease and hypertension – Time for reevaluation? Circulation 1995;92:1079-1082.

265.     Furberg CD, Psaty BM, Meyer JV. Nifedipine: Dose-related increase in mortality in patients with coronary heart disease. Circulation 92: 1326-1331.

266.    Koller PT, Bergmann SR. Reduction of lipid peroxidation in reperfused isolated rabbit hearts by diltiazem. Cir Res 1989:65:838-841.

267.    Woods, KL, Fletcher S. Long-term outcome after intravenous magnesium sulphate in suspected acute myocardial infarction: The second Leicester Intravenous Magnesium Intervention Trial (LIMIT-2). Lancet 1995;343:816-9.

268.    Seelig MS, Elin RJ. Reexamination of magnesium infusions in myocardial infarction, Am J Cardiol 1995;76:172-173.

269.    Cox IM, Campbell MJ, Dowson D. Red blood cell magnesium and chronic fatigue. Lancet 1991;337:757-760.

270.    Boyer EW, Shannon M. Treatment of calcium-channel-blocker intoxication with insulin infusion. N Engl J Med 2001;344:1721-1722.

271.     Enyert JJ, Price WA, Hoffman DA, et al. Profound hyperglycemic and metabolic acidosis after verapamil overdose. J Am Coll Cardiol 1983;2:1228-31.

272.    Yuan TH, Kearns WP II, Ford MO, et al. Insulin-glucose as adjunctive therapy for severe calcium channel antagonist poisoning. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1999;37:463-474.

273.    Kline JA, Leonova E, Raymond RM. Beneficial myocardial metabolic effects of insulin during verapamil toxicity in the anesthetized canine. Crit Care Med 1995;1251-1263.

274.    Wolkow CA, Kimura KD, Lee M-S, et al. Regulation of C. elegans Life-Span by insulin-like signaling in the nervous system. Science 2000;290:147-153.

275.    Xu SS. The use of YiQi Zhu Yu Tong Mai Tang (Boost the Qi, dispel stasis and free the flow of vessels concoction) in the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Jiangsu Chinese Medicine 1999;3:23. (Italics added as the English translation).

276.    Das UN, Mohan IK, Kumar KV. et al. Beneficial effect of L-arginine in non-insulin dependant diabetes mellitus: a potential role for nitric oxide. Med Sci Res: 1993:21:669-670.

277.    Dukes ID, Philipson LH. K+ channels: generating excitement in pancreatic beta-cells. Diabetes 1996:45:845-53.

278.     Muller G, Eied S. The sulfonylurea drug, glimepiride, stimulates glucose transport, glucose transporter translocation, and dephosphorylation in insulin-resistant rat adipocytes in vitro. Diabetes 1993;42:1852-1867.

279.     Fischer Y, Thomas J, Rosen P, et al. Action of metformin on glucose transport and glucose transporter GLUT-I and GLUT-4 in heart muscle cells from healthy and diabetic rats. Endocrinology 1995:136:412-20.

280.    Bailey CJ. Metformin and its role in the management of type-2 diabetes. Curr Opin Endocrinol Metab 1997:4:40-47.

281.    Hulin B, McCarthy PA, Gibbs EM. The glitazone family of antidiabetic agents. Curr Pharm Des 1996:2:85-102.

282.    Saltiel AR, Olefsky JM. Thiazolidinediones in the treatment of insulin resistance and type II diabetes. Diabetes 1996;45:1661-1669.

283.     Inzucchi SE, Maggs DG, Spollett GR, et al. Efficacy of metabolic effects of metformin and troglitazone in type II diabetes mellitus. N Eng J Med 1998;338:867-872.

284.     Matthaei S, Hamann A, Klein HH, et al. Association of metformin’s effect to increase-insulin translocation of glucose transporters from intracellular pool to plasma membrane in rat adipocytes. Diabetes 1991;40:850-857.

285.     Tuomilehto J, Lindstrom J, Eriksson JG, et al. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Eng J Med. 2001:344:1342-50.

286.      Bennett PH. Type 2 diabetes among the Pima Indians of Arizona: an epidemic attributable to environmental change? Nutr Rev 1999:57(5);S51-S54.

287.     National Diabetes Data Group. Diabetes in America, Md.: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 1995. (NIH publication no. 95-1468).

288.    Ali M. Oxidative theory of cell membrane and plasma damage. 1995. In: Rats, Drugs and Assumptions. Life Span, Denville, New Jersey. pp 281-302.

289.    Ali M: Under Darwin’s Glow (editorial). J Integrative Medicine 1999:3:1.

290.    Alper J. New Insights into type 2 diabetes. Science 2000:289:31-39.

291.     Tuomilehto J, Wolf E. Primary prevention of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 1987;10:238-248.

292.     Eriksson KF, Lindgarde F. Prevention of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus by diet and physical exercise: the 6-year Malmo feasibility study. Diabetologia 1991:34:891-898.

293.    Ali M. What Do Lions Know About Stress. Life Span Press, Denville, NJ 1996.

294.    Ali M. The Ghoraa and Limbic Exercise. Life Span Press. Denville, NJ 1993.

295.    Ali M. Healing Miracles and the Bite of the Grey Dog, Life Span Press. Denville, NJ 1998

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s